CD Video 12-inch disc (1988 – 1992)

CD Video (CDV) was a format launched in 1988 by Philips that combined the technologies of the Compact Disc and LaserDisc. Three sizes of CD Video disc were available, the smallest CD Video disc being the same size as a Compact Disc and having audio content that could be played on any Compact Disc player as well as some video content that required a compatible LaserDisc or CD Video player.

The 8-inch size disc contained only video content and was used for music video compilations, with a total capacity of 20 minutes per side. The 12-inch size disc was used for longer music compilations and feature films, and like a standard LaserDisc could hold 60 minutes per side. The only difference between the new CD Video 12-inch disc and the existing LaserDisc format was simply that CD Video had digital audio (it still had analogue video) but this was more a marketing exercise since digital audio had already been introduced by Pioneer in 1984, and Pioneer had produced a series of Compact LaserDiscs in 1986 that had digital audio for music videos.

To distinguish the new CD Video discs from Compact Discs and other LaserDiscs, they were coloured gold.

The new CD Video discs could only be played on the latest LaserDisc players, such as the Pioneer CLD-1010 from 1987, so owners of older LaserDisc players could not play them. Philips launched a player capable of playing all sizes of CD Video disc in 1988 in Europe (the CDV 475), and also launched a smaller machine capable of playing just the 5-inch CD Video discs and audio Compact Discs.

CD Video was not a success and although the LaserDisc format carried on until 2001 mainly promoted by Pioneer, the CD Video name was dropped after a couple of years and Philips along with other collaborators, introduced Video CD in 1993.

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CD Video 8-inch disc (1988 – 1992)

CD Video (CDV) was a format launched in 1988 by Philips that combined the technologies of the Compact Disc and LaserDisc. Three sizes of CD Video disc were available, the smallest CD Video disc being the same size as a Compact Disc and having audio content that could be played on any Compact Disc player as well as some video content that required a compatible LaserDisc or CD Video player.

The 8-inch size disc contained only video content and was used for music video compilations, with a total capacity of 20 minutes per side. The 12-inch size disc was used for longer music compilations and feature films, and like a standard LaserDisc could hold 60 minutes per side. The only difference between the new CD Video 8-inch disc and the existing LaserDisc 8-inch disc was simply that CD Video had digital audio (it still has analogue video) but this was more a marketing exercise since digital audio had already been introduced by Pioneer in 1984, and Pioneer had produced a series of Compact LaserDiscs in 1986 that had digital audio for music videos.

To distinguish the new CD Video discs from Compact Discs and other LaserDiscs, they were coloured gold.

The new CD Video discs could only be played on the latest LaserDisc players, such as the Pioneer CLD-1010 from 1987, so owners of older LaserDisc players could not play them. Philips launched a player capable of playing all sizes of CD Video disc in 1988 in Europe (the CDV 475), and also launched a smaller machine capable of playing just the 5-inch CD Video discs and audio Compact Discs.

CD Video was not a success and although the LaserDisc format carried on until 2001 mainly promoted by Pioneer, the CD Video name was dropped after a couple of years and Philips along with other collaborators, introduced Video CD in 1993.

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Philips EL 3583 (1963 – early 1970s)

The Philips EL 3583 was an office dictation machine that used small cartridges of ⅛-inch tape. It appears to have been introduced around 1963, around the same time that Philips also introduced their Compact Cassette system, and it may have replaced the EL 3581 system.

The threading mechanism was unusual; a supply cartridge and a separate take-up cartridge would be placed in the machine and lever would be depressed causing a latch at the end of the supply cartridge’s tape to be pulled across and to lock into the take-up spool.

Like other dictation machines, the microphone also acted as a small speaker and contained a control to begin recording.

It’s unclear when the system was produced until, but it seems unlikely to be much beyond the early 1970s as Philips own Compact Cassette and mini-cassette designs, as well as other competing cassettes such as the Microcassette were available.

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Philips Background Music Services cartridge (1970s – 1980s)

Philips Background Music Services cartridges were based on the Fidelipac B size cartridge and were 4-track mono cartridges for background music systems made by Philips. Being based on the Fidelipac cartridge meant they were endless loop tapes and would simply repeat the music once all four tracks had been played through.

There appear to have been two models of player, the BMS 2500 and the BMS 2600.

The cartridges themselves display a description of the type of music contained on them (for example, ‘music for stylish surroundings’) and are contained in a box that had the return address and space for a stamp on the rear, so the cartridges could be returned to Philips Background Music Services after use.

The system could be used for locations such as shops, offices and restaurants, and the pre-recorded music was licensed for public performance

By 1989 Philips had begun using the CD-BGM format, for example in its BMS 3000 player.

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Philips EL 3581 (1958 – early 1960s)

The Philips EL 3581 was an office dictation machine introduced by Philips (known as Norelco in the US) in 1958 and was one of the earliest magnetic tape dictation systems (the Dictaphone Dictet was launched shortly before it). At the time of its introduction, most dictation systems were using discs or belts onto which grooves were pressed, such as the Dictabelt, SoundScriber and Audograph systems.

Although the EL 3581 uses a cartridge so no threading is required, the tape is housed on two separate 3-inch reels with ¼-inch tape and cine spindle holes suitable for domestic open reel tape recorders. Removing a clip from the cartridge shell allows the reels to be removed.

Like some other dictation machines, the microphone also doubles as a speaker, and contains some tape controls. A foot pedal and external speaker were also available.

Philips later introduced the much smaller EL 3583 and Compact Cassette formats in 1963, followed by the mini-cassette in 1967 and it doesn’t appear the EL 3581 was produced for long.

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Enhanced CD (1994 – )

An enhanced CD (or ECD) is a Compact Disc that contains both audio content playable on a standard CD audio player, and multimedia content playable on a computer CD-ROM.

Introduced in 1994, the idea behind enhanced CDs was to offer the music buyer some extra bonus features using space on the disc that was unfilled by the music. This might take the form of music videos (similar to the earlier idea of CD Video), interviews, wallpapers, pictures, lyrics, or links to an artists website.

Rather confusingly, there were three different ways on combining the different content on the disc. Prior to 1996, enhanced CDs were created in one of two ways. One was to have the multimedia content in the first track, but this meant that track 1 needed to be skipped when played in a standard CD audio player or else the multimedia track could cause an unpleasant noise to be heard. A subsequent solution was to have the multimedia content in the pre-gap before track 1 (rather like the way a CD-i Ready disc worked). Both of these methods were known as ‘mixed-mode’, combining Red Book Digital Audio and Yellow Book CD-ROM information in a single ‘session’ on the same disc.

To get around the problems of mixed-mode discs, Philips and Sony released the Blue Book standards in 1995, and worked with Apple, Microsoft and the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) to develop them. This new standard specified multisession technology that used two sessions on the disc, the first one containing audio tracks, and the second one containing data that is invisible to CD audio players. In 1996, most enhanced CDs used mixed-mode with the multimedia in the pre-gap, but by 1997 most were using Blue Book standards. The only downside to the newer multisession technology was that CD-ROM drives made before 1996 might not recognise them if they were not multisession capable.

Enhanced CDs can usually be recognised the official ‘Enhanced CD’ logo recommended by the RIAA. They may also have the CD EXTRA logo (previously known as CD Plus), which was trademarked by Sony for use on Blue Book discs.

Later technologies like DVD-Audio or DualDisc tried to perform the same function of offering the music album with bonus material such as videos, but later albums often came instead with the videos on a separate DVD-Video.

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CD-i Ready (1991 – 1998)

CD-i Ready was a hybrid optical disc format, combining audio tracks readable by any Compact Disc audio player, and multimedia or interactive elements readable on a CD-i (Compact Disc Interactive) player. It was introduced by Philips in 1991.

The audio tracks conform to Red Book Compact Disc Digital Audio standards, while the CD-i part conforms to Green Book standards, and could contain interviews, photos, biographies, games and more. The CD-i component is located in the ‘pre-gap’ area before track 1, which is skipped over by Compact Disc audio players.

The idea, like CD-i generally, was not a commercial success, and there appear to be fewer than 20 titles released as CD-i Ready discs.

The ideas behind the hybrid CD-i Ready discs were used in later types of hybrid audio/data discs such as the Enhanced CD that contained content which could be read on a standard computer CD-ROM drive rather than requiring a dedicated CD-i player.

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CD-i Digital Video (1993 – 1994)

CD-i Digital Video was a short-lived video disc format introduced by Philips in 1993 that was designed to be played in CD-i players equipped with an optional Digital Video Cartridge. This expansion unit contained a 32 bit RISC processor and 1 MB of RAM to provide MPEG-1 decoding.

CD-i Digital Video followed the Green Book standard for CD-i discs, making it incompatible with the Video CD format introduced shortly afterwards that followed the White Book standard. However, whilst Video CD players could not play CD-i Digital Video, CD-i players with the optional Digital Video Cartridge could play both formats. Some other CD-i discs such as games also made use of the Digital Video Cartridge to play video.

One of the two differences between the formats was the resolution, that was slightly higher on CD-i Digital Video (384×288 instead of 352×288 for Video CD). When a Video CD is played on a CD-i player, slightly larger pixels are displayed to fill the screen.

Only around 20 movies were released on CD-i Digital Video before Philips switched to Video CD for distributing movies in 1994.

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Digital Compact Cassette (DCC) (1992 – 1996)

Digital Compact Cassette (DCC) was a digital audio recording format using magnetic tape, introduced by Philips and Matsushita in 1992. Pitched as a successor to Philips’ own Compact Cassette and competitor to Sony’s MiniDisc, it never became popular.

It shared the same form factor as compact cassettes, and DCC recorders could play back either type of cassette. This backward compatibility allowed users to adopt digital recording without rendering their existing tape collections obsolete.

As well as home players, portable and in-car players were produced.

Digital Compact Cassette was discontinued in October 1996 after Philips admitted it had achieved poor sales.

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CD Video (1988 – 1992)

CD Video (CDV) was a format launched in 1988 by Philips that combined the technologies of the Compact Disc and LaserDisc.

Three sizes of CD Video disc were available with the smallest disc being the same size as a Compact Disc.  The larger sizes were 8-inches (mainly used for music video compilations), and 12-inches (used for longer music video compilations and feature films).

The small 5-inch discs contained up to 20 minutes worth of audio information (around 4-5 tracks) that could be played on any audio Compact Disc player. They also contained up to 5 minutes of analogue video (with digital sound) which could be played back on a newer LaserDisc or CD Video player. The first such player was the Pioneer CLD-1010 from 1987, with Philips launching a player capable of playing all sizes of CD Video disc in 1988 (the CDV 475) as well as a smaller machine capable of playing just the 5-inch CD Video discs and audio Compact Discs.

CD Video discs have a distinctive gold colour, to differentiate them from regular silver-coloured Compact Discs.

Over 170 CD Video titles were released, but the format met with limited success as a LaserDisc or CD Video player was required to play the video portion. CD Video disappeared from the the US and European markets around 1990, but continued to be popular in Japan until 1992. Philips along with other collaborators, introduced Video CD in 1993.

A version of CD Video called Video Single Disc (VSD) was also released, but this only had a LaserDisc analogue video track and no Compact Disc audio tracks.

 

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