CD Video 12-inch disc (1988 – 1992)

CD Video (CDV) was a format launched in 1988 by Philips that combined the technologies of the Compact Disc and LaserDisc. Three sizes of CD Video disc were available, the smallest CD Video disc being the same size as a Compact Disc and having audio content that could be played on any Compact Disc player as well as some video content that required a compatible LaserDisc or CD Video player.

The 8-inch size disc contained only video content and was used for music video compilations, with a total capacity of 20 minutes per side. The 12-inch size disc was used for longer music compilations and feature films, and like a standard LaserDisc could hold 60 minutes per side. The only difference between the new CD Video 12-inch disc and the existing LaserDisc format was simply that CD Video had digital audio (it still had analogue video) but this was more a marketing exercise since digital audio had already been introduced by Pioneer in 1984, and Pioneer had produced a series of Compact LaserDiscs in 1986 that had digital audio for music videos.

To distinguish the new CD Video discs from Compact Discs and other LaserDiscs, they were coloured gold.

The new CD Video discs could only be played on the latest LaserDisc players, such as the Pioneer CLD-1010 from 1987, so owners of older LaserDisc players could not play them. Philips launched a player capable of playing all sizes of CD Video disc in 1988 in Europe (the CDV 475), and also launched a smaller machine capable of playing just the 5-inch CD Video discs and audio Compact Discs.

CD Video was not a success and although the LaserDisc format carried on until 2001 mainly promoted by Pioneer, the CD Video name was dropped after a couple of years and Philips along with other collaborators, introduced Video CD in 1993.

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Digital-S / D-9 (1995 – early 2000s)

Digital-S (or D-9) was a professional digital video tape cassette format introduced by JVC in 1995.

The cassette shell was very similar to JVC’s VHS format, but despite this Digital-S is not compatible with the later consumer D-VHS format as the tape formulation and data format are different.

Digital-S competed with other professional formats such as DVCAM, DVCPRO and Digital Betacam, and was a commercial failure. However, it saw some use in the US, Asia, and Europe, including at the BBC.

Digital-S was given the designation D-9 by the SMPTE in 1999. A high-definition version, D-9 HD, was announced but doesn’t appear to have been launched.

D-9 doesn’t appear to have lasted much beyond the early 2000s.

Sources / Resources

CD Video 8-inch disc (1988 – 1992)

CD Video (CDV) was a format launched in 1988 by Philips that combined the technologies of the Compact Disc and LaserDisc. Three sizes of CD Video disc were available, the smallest CD Video disc being the same size as a Compact Disc and having audio content that could be played on any Compact Disc player as well as some video content that required a compatible LaserDisc or CD Video player.

The 8-inch size disc contained only video content and was used for music video compilations, with a total capacity of 20 minutes per side. The 12-inch size disc was used for longer music compilations and feature films, and like a standard LaserDisc could hold 60 minutes per side. The only difference between the new CD Video 8-inch disc and the existing LaserDisc 8-inch disc was simply that CD Video had digital audio (it still has analogue video) but this was more a marketing exercise since digital audio had already been introduced by Pioneer in 1984, and Pioneer had produced a series of Compact LaserDiscs in 1986 that had digital audio for music videos.

To distinguish the new CD Video discs from Compact Discs and other LaserDiscs, they were coloured gold.

The new CD Video discs could only be played on the latest LaserDisc players, such as the Pioneer CLD-1010 from 1987, so owners of older LaserDisc players could not play them. Philips launched a player capable of playing all sizes of CD Video disc in 1988 in Europe (the CDV 475), and also launched a smaller machine capable of playing just the 5-inch CD Video discs and audio Compact Discs.

CD Video was not a success and although the LaserDisc format carried on until 2001 mainly promoted by Pioneer, the CD Video name was dropped after a couple of years and Philips along with other collaborators, introduced Video CD in 1993.

Sources / Resources

Brother Micro Disc (mid 1980s)

The Brother Micro Disc was a floppy disc for use in the standalone Brother MD-200 disk drive for use with certain Brother electronic typewriters.

It consists of a 2.5-inch flexible disc in a carrier (rather like a 5.25-inch minifloppy disc). The discs are two-sided, and the cover of the disk leaves a large portion of the magnetic surface exposed when the disk is not in its paper envelope.

The format doesn’t appear to have been very common

 

 

Yamaha Playcard (1982 – mid 1980s)

The Yamaha Playcard was a system used by several Yamaha electronic keyboards to playback music. The cards consisted of a large card (a bit smaller than A4 size) with musical notation, and a magnetic stripe on the lower edge. The stripe was read by swiping the card through a slot on the back of the keyboard (which could also act as a holder for the piece of music). The keyboard could then either playback the music, or play an accompaniment and the user could play the tune by following the music or pressing the keys that were lit by an LED.

Playcards were introduced around 1982 and were used by the PC-100 as well as some other models of Yamaha keyboards. The system was not used by any other keyboard manufacturers.

A number of different themed sets of Playcard were available, covering genres such as popular songs, classics, standards and show tunes. Judging by the songs included, Playcards don’t seem to have lasted beyond the mid-1980s.

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Encrypted USB flash drive (2004 – )

An encrypted USB flash drive is a USB flash drive featuring hardware encryption, and first seems to have appeared in 2004.

There are usually two separate partitions on the drive; one is a read-only partition that contains the encryption software, the other is the secure encrypted partition that is only accessible once the correct password is entered. Most drives use Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) encryption. The drives may have a feature whereby if an incorrect password is entered too many times, the secure partition becomes inaccessible and will need to be reformatted.

As the encryption software is run from the drive itself, nothing needs to be installed on the computer which makes it easier to use than having to install the necessary software on each computer that the drive will be used on, but makes the drive vulnerable if the software no longer runs in newer operating systems.

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HP 82176A Mini Data Cassette (1982 – mid 1980s)

The 82176A Mini Data Cassette was introduced by Hewlett-Packard in 1982 for use in its 82161A mini-cassette tape drive that was designed for use with the HP 41 calculator.

The drive could be mains or battery powered for portable use. Tape speed was 30 inches per second, and each tape had a capacity of around 130 KB.

The 82161A mini-cassette tape drive was later used with the 71, 75 and some other models that used the HP-IL (Hewlett-Packard Interface Loop) interface.

The 82176A Mini Data Cassette looks almost identical to the Philips-designed Mini-cassette, but there are some differences in the shell, such as the tape openings and a notch on the top, that prevent a standard Mini-cassette being used in the HP tape drive.

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Gold CD-R (1996 – )

Gold CD-Rs (sometimes called archival CD-Rs) are intended to have a much longer life than standard CD-Rs. The main difference is that these CD-Rs use gold as the reflective layer to prevent oxidation (also known as laser rot), and they generally also use higher-quality dyes (preferably phthalocyanine). Being write-once also means the data cannot be accidentally overwritten.

Gold CD-Rs were introduced by MAM-A (Mitsui Advanced Media – America) around 1996.

Some gold CD-Rs suggest that they can offer data storage for to 300 years. Unfortunately there is no way to tell if this will be the case, and the future obsolescence of optical drives means they still should not be relied upon for long-term data storage.

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Preservation / Migration

DTS 5.1 Music Disc (1997 – early 2000s)

The DTS 5.1 Music Disc was a Compact Disc format offering surround sound audio, usually in the 5.1 configuration. The discs would play in a standard Compact Disc player, but without the use of a DTS decoder all that would be heard is white noise. The potential confusion between DTS 5.1 Music Discs and standard Compact Discs meant some retailers were reluctant to stock them. There is some compression applied to the audio, so sound quality is arguably slightly lower than a standard CD.

Formats such as DVD-Audio and Super Audio CD, launched a few years later, could also offer surround sound and meant an end to the DTS 5.1 Music Disc, though several hundred titles were released on the format.

DTS surround sound technology is also used in movie theatres, on DVD-Video and on Blu-ray. It was also used on a small number of LaserDiscs.

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QSound Compact Disc (1991 – 2001)

QSound is an audio processing system introduced by QSound Labs. It was applied at the sound mixing stage and attempts to produce a surround sound effect from a stereophonic source. It was used on around 65 Compact Disc albums from 1991 to around 2001, which display the QSound logo. The first album to use QSound was Madonna’s ‘The Immaculate Collection’ and all the tracks were either re-mixed or mixed using the system.

No additional equipment was necessary to play a QSound Compact Disc, and the discs comply fully with Red Book standards.

As well as Compact Disc albums, the QSound technology was also applied to computer game audio, television programmes and film soundtracks.

On mono devices, music mixed using the QSound system can have elements missing.

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