Tagged: cassette

Cassettes normally have two reels with a single span of magnetic tape. In some cases, the reels can be above each other.

HDCAM SR (2003 – 2016)

HDCAM SR (Superior Resolution) was a professional high-definition digital video cassette format, introduced by Sony in 2003 as a higher quality variant of its existing HDCAM system.

Like other Betacam-related formats, HDCAM SR cassettes were available in large and small sizes, and had the same tape lengths as Digital Betacam (up to 40 minutes for S and 124 minutes for L tapes).

It used higher particle density tape allowing an increased bit rate (a choice or 440 or 880 Mbps). Like HDCAM, it was commonly used in high-definition television production.

Sony HDCAM SR tapes were black with a cyan lid and contained a 1K memory chip to store metadata about the tape.

In 2016, Sony announced that it was ceasing production of its remaining ½-inch video tape recorders and players, including those for the HDCAM SR format.

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D-VHS (1998 – 2007)

D-VHS was a later variant of VHS that recorded digitally, and was introduced in 1998. It was developed by the originator of VHS, JVC, along with Hitachi, Matsushita, and Philips.

D-VHS used MPEG recording, and could record in standard or high-definition.  There were several different recording speeds available, so a tape could have a variety of different capacities, for example a DF-300 tape that could hold 300 minutes at standard speed, could hold as much as 2100 minutes (35 hours) at LS7 (low speed, one seventh of the standard speed) if the machine was capable of using the very slowest speed. High-definition recordings reduced the capacity of the tape by half. Standard speed recordings had a higher bandwidth than DVD.

D-VHS tapes had a second hole on their underside that identified them to the recorder as being D-VHS tapes, and to record in D-VHS mode. Where the hole was missing, the machine would record in VHS or S-VHS format. VHS and S-VHS tapes could be played in the machine.

Unfortunately, sales of D-VHS recorders were poor, and so the price of them never fell greatly.

In 2002, a small number of pre-recorded D-VHS tapes were released under the D-Theater brand by four film-studios. However, despite being virtually identical to D-VHS, D-Theater tapes could only be played on D-VHS players with the D-Theater logo. D-Theater did provide much better video quality than DVD, at a time when high-definition formats such as Blu-Ray and HD-DVD were yet to be introduced.

The last D-Theater title was released in 2004, but D-VHS recorders were listed on the JVC website until 2007.

StorageTek 9840 (1998 – 2009)

The StorageTek 9840 was a magnetic tape system for data backup, primarily for mainframe use. The series was first introduced in 1998 with the T9840A, which had an uncompressed capacity of 20 GB. The final incarnation was the T9840D which had a capacity of 75 GB.

The StorageTek 9840 was unusual compared to its competitors such LTO and Super DLT, and to other StorageTek formats such the T10000, as the cartridges contained two reels, reducing the amount of tape that was stored in the cartridge but making loading of the tape very fast. Like many other backup tape cartridges, it used serpentine recording and ½-inch tape.

The T9840B doubled the data transfer rate of the T9840A model, making it the fastest tape drive at the time, though it was considered expensive compared to rivals, especially as its capacity was lower.

The final 9840 drives were shipped in 2009.

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DTRS (Digital Tape Recording System) (1993 – 2012)

DTRS (Digital Tape Recording System) was a magnetic tape format for professional digital audio recording. It was introduced by TASCAM in 1993 for use in the DA-88 digital multitrack recorder.

The DA-88 and later models could record up to eight tracks, but devices could be combined to record 16, 24 or more tracks. The first models in the range recorded at 16-bit resolution, with later models recording at 24-bit resolution. Sony also produced a DTRS recorder.

The tape itself was simply Hi8 video tape (an analogue video format) that was used to store audio in the digital DTRS format, and it allowed long continuous recording times. The format was considered to be affordable and reliable.

DTRS was discontinued in 2012, as recording studios have moved to hard-drive recording.

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Memocord (1965 – mid 1970s)

Memocord was a line of portable tape recorders for voice recording and dictation, introduced by the German Assmann company around 1965. The recorders and cassettes were produced in Austria by the Stuzzi company that had previously used the Memocord name for their own portable recorders using small open reels of tape.

The cassettes for the Assmann Memocord look a little like Compact Cassettes and consist of two reels in a clear housing so the amount of tape remaining can be seen. The cassettes protrude from the recorder, and this is so that on most (but not all models) they can be used to control the recorder; by pressing one end of the cassette, it plays, and by pressing the other end, the tape is rewound. This means most models of recorder only had one tape control button, and this is for recording. It also meant that there are some differences in shape between cassettes as the protruding end does not need to be the same.

Up to 90 minutes could be recorded onto a Memocord cassette.

There were several models of Assmann Memocord, and they appear to have been made until around the mid-1970s.

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VX (1975 – 1977)

VX was an early analogue video cassette format aimed at the consumer market. It was launched by Matsushita in Japan in 1975, and was also sold in the US under the Quasar brand. The only machine using the VX format in the US was the VR-1000, marketed under the name ‘The Great Time Machine’ as it could be programmed to record at specific times. In Japan, only two models of video recorder were made.

The tape in a VX cassette was ½-inch wide, and was wound on two coaxial reels (like the VCR and Cartrivision formats). The tape was pre-formed in a loop to go around the video head, which was inserted into the cassette after a protective plug was removed by the machine. The video head itself could be unscrewed and removed for cleaning or replacement.

Tape lengths of up to two hours (120 minutes, or 1200 feet) were available, but the cassettes were much larger than cassettes for the Betamax or VHS systems that pulled the tape out of the cassette to loop around the video head.

Matsushita later went on to support JVC in its introduction of VHS and by 1977 had started producing VHS video recorders.

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Steno-Cassette (1971 – )

The Steno-Cassette is an analogue tape cassette format introduced by Grundig in 1971.

It was widely used in Germany for dictation, and is still currently available.

The Steno-Cassette incorporates a tape counter showing the amount of tape available. The tapes are single-sided, and have a capacity of 30 minutes.

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Microcassette (1969 – )

Introduced by Olympus in 1969 for voice recording, the microcassette uses the same width of magnetic tape as the Compact Cassette (3.81mm) but in a much smaller shell. By using thinner tape and half or a quarter of the tape speed, microcassettes can offer comparable recording time to the Compact Cassette. The original standard microcassette, the MC60, gives 30 minutes recording per side at its standard speed of 2.4 cm/s, and twice the time at 1.2 cm/s.

Because of the format’s relatively low fidelity, microcassettes have mostly been used for recording voice, for example in dictation machines and telephone answering machines. However, it has also been used as a medium for computer data storage and music. In the early  1980s, some Walkman-type devices, and even some home audio players for stereo recording and playback were produced, and metal tape (equivalent to Type IV metal tape in Compact Cassettes) was available for higher fidelity.

Microcassette was more suited to data and music recording than the Mini-Cassette as the tape is pulled through by the capstan and has a more constant speed, whereas in the Mini-Cassette, the tape is pulled by the reels.

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Preservation / Migration

Digital Compact Cassette (DCC) (1992 – 1996)

Digital Compact Cassette (DCC) was a digital audio recording format using magnetic tape, introduced by Philips and Matsushita in 1992. Pitched as a successor to Philips’ own Compact Cassette and competitor to Sony’s MiniDisc, it never became popular.

It shared the same form factor as compact cassettes, and DCC recorders could play back either type of cassette. This backward compatibility allowed users to adopt digital recording without rendering their existing tape collections obsolete.

As well as home players, portable and in-car players were produced.

Digital Compact Cassette was discontinued in October 1996 after Philips admitted it had achieved poor sales.

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DVCAM (1996 – )

DVCAM is a variation of the DV format introduced by Sony in 1996, and aimed at the semi-professional and lower-end professional market.

DVCAM uses the same type of tape and compression as DV and MiniDV but at a higher speed (almost 50% faster). In common with all DV formats, DVCAM uses tape that is ¼-inch (6.35 mm) wide. DVCAM uses metal evaporated (ME) tape

DVCAM tapes come in two different sizes. The smaller size uses the same form-factor as MiniDV and can hold up to 40 minutes, which the larger size (which is actually the medium size DV tape) can hold up to 184 minutes.

Technically, any DV cassette can record any variant of DV video.

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Preservation / Migration