Tagged: 1990s

Formats current at any point during the years 1990-1999

CD-i Ready (1991 – 1998)

CD-i Ready was a hybrid optical disc format, combining audio tracks readable by any Compact Disc audio player, and multimedia or interactive elements readable on a CD-i (Compact Disc Interactive) player. It was introduced by Philips in 1991.

The audio tracks conform to Red Book Compact Disc Digital Audio standards, while the CD-i part conforms to Green Book standards, and could contain interviews, photos, biographies, games and more. The CD-i component is located in the ‘pre-gap’ area before track 1, which is skipped over by Compact Disc audio players.

The idea, like CD-i generally, was not a commercial success, and there appear to be fewer than 20 titles released as CD-i Ready discs.

The ideas behind the hybrid CD-i Ready discs were used in later types of hybrid audio/data discs such as the Enhanced CD that contained content which could be read on a standard computer CD-ROM drive rather than requiring a dedicated CD-i player.

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Luminous vinyl record (1978 – )

A small number of phonograph records have been pressed on luminous vinyl, two of the first being the 12-inch single version of Kraftwerk’s ‘Neon Lights’, and the Penetration album ‘Moving Targets’, both in 1978. Since then, a small number of releases have been made on luminous vinyl.

In normal light, the records look like standard coloured vinyl (usually white in colour, but some other colours have also been used such as yellow for Kraftwerk’s 1981 7-inch single of ‘Pocket Calculator’) but give off a phosphorescent glow in darkness. They glow brighter after being exposed to bright light for a while.

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Holographic Compact Disc (1991 – 1996)

Holographic Compact Discs are standard Compact Discs with a holographic design incorporated into them. These appear on both sides of the disc, and the playing area is kept within the 3-inches of a mini CD single, limiting playing time. The playable part of the disc conforms to Red Book standards.

A handful of singles and interview discs were released, mostly between 1991 and 1993. Almost all releases were mastered by Nimbus and Applied Holographics.

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D-VHS (1998 – 2007)

D-VHS was a later variant of VHS that recorded digitally, and was introduced in 1998. It was developed by the originator of VHS, JVC, along with Hitachi, Matsushita, and Philips.

D-VHS used MPEG recording, and could record in standard or high-definition.  There were several different recording speeds available, so a tape could have a variety of different capacities, for example a DF-300 tape that could hold 300 minutes at standard speed, could hold as much as 2100 minutes (35 hours) at LS7 (low speed, one seventh of the standard speed) if the machine was capable of using the very slowest speed. High-definition recordings reduced the capacity of the tape by half. Standard speed recordings had a higher bandwidth than DVD.

D-VHS tapes had a second hole on their underside that identified them to the recorder as being D-VHS tapes, and to record in D-VHS mode. Where the hole was missing, the machine would record in VHS or S-VHS format. VHS and S-VHS tapes could be played in the machine.

Unfortunately, sales of D-VHS recorders were poor, and so the price of them never fell greatly.

In 2002, a small number of pre-recorded D-VHS tapes were released under the D-Theater brand by four film-studios. However, despite being virtually identical to D-VHS, D-Theater tapes could only be played on D-VHS players with the D-Theater logo. D-Theater did provide much better video quality than DVD, at a time when high-definition formats such as Blu-Ray and HD-DVD were yet to be introduced.

The last D-Theater title was released in 2004, but D-VHS recorders were listed on the JVC website until 2007.

Photo CD (1992 – 2004)

Photo CD was an optical disc system based on the Compact Disc that allowed the storage of up to 100 high quality images in a proprietary format. It was introduced by Kodak in 1992, and the format is defined in the Biege Book standard (one of the Rainbow Books covering Compact Disc standards). Kodak’s Photo CD system also included the scanners for photo processing labs that could take scans from film negatives or slides. Photographers could take exposed film to a Photo CD processing lab, where the film would be developed and scanned to a Photo CD, or they could have previously developed film scanned to Photo CD.

Photo CDs were designed to be played on a dedicated standalone Photo CD player connected to a domestic television, but they could also be played in a CD-i player. It was possible to play them on a computer with suitable software, but at the time CD-ROM drives were still uncommon.

The system was not popular with consumers, though it was more accepted by professional photographers.  Although there were around 140 Photo CD processing labs in the US alone by 2000, by this time domestic scanners enabled consumers to scan their own photographs. In 1999, Kodak had also introduced the more affordable Picture CD system, with images in JPEG format burned onto a recordable CD that also held the software required to the view and edit the images on a computer.

Kodak had completely abandoned the Photo CD business by 2004, but never released the image specifications. However, it has been reverse-engineered so it is possible to convert images to other formats.

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XRCD (1995 – )

XRCD (eXtended Resolution Compact Disc) was introduced by JVC in 1995. XRCD discs conform to Red Book standards and will play on any Compact Disc player, but claim to use much higher quality mastering and manufacturing processes to produce a sound as close as possible to the original master tape.

Subsequent versions of XRCD are called XRCD2 and XRCD24.

All versions of XRCD disc are encoded at 16 bits; the 24 in XRCD24 refers to the use of 24 bit encoding when digitising the original analogue source (XRCD and XRCD2 used 20 bit encoding of the original source).

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Laser Juke (1990 – 2002)

The Laser Juke was a music video jukebox system that played 8-inch LaserDiscs using an autochanger mechanism. It was introduced by Pioneer, possibly around 1990, and the machine could house 10 discs, each containing 10 music videos (5 per side) with NTSC analogue video and audio. The discs were normally rented from Pioneer, and came with inserts showing the track listing.

Over 380 discs are listed on LDDB, and discs continued to be produced until at least 2002, which is later than other LaserDisc formats.

The Laser Juke name was also used by Pioneer on an unrelated Compact Disc jukebox system.

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Video Single Disc (1990 – 1991)

Video Single Disc (VSD) was a short-lived optical disc format for video. It was a variation of the CD-Video format, except the Video Single Disc carried only video and no Compact Disc audio tracks.

Video Single Disc carried analogue video and was compatible with newer LaserDisc players that could handle the smaller (12 cm) discs. It was only popular in some Asian markets and was not marketed elsewhere.

Of the 132 releases listed on the LDDB, most were single music videos, but there were a number of releases of Formula 1 racing-related videos.

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SNK Neo Geo MVS (1990 – 2004)

The Neo Geo MVS (for ‘Multi Video System’) was a cartridge-based arcade game system released in 1990 by SNK.

The MVS was a coin-operated arcade console that could accept up to six cartridges in a single cabinet (1,2, and 4 slot versions were also available). Different games could be selected by players. and arcade operators could easily swap the cartridges inside the machine and change the exterior artwork. It was a successful product in the 1990s due to its low cost, compact size and the ability to offer different games in the same cabinet. When released, it was also the most powerful arcade system available.

A home version of the Neo Geo system, the AES (for ‘Advanced Entertainment System’) was made available for rental in 1990, and later for sale in 1991 when it was discovered people were willing to pay the high price.

Software is compatible with either system as they had the same specifications, but although the large cartridges look very similar they have different pin configurations and require an adaptor to use in the other system.

Neo Geo memory cards were available to allow players to save a game to return to at a later time, or continue play on either the MVS or AES systems.

Although hardware for the MVS and AES ceased production in 1997, game software was released until 2004 with the last official game being Samurai Shodown V Special. The Neo Geo MVS was replaced by the Hyper Neo Geo 64.

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ADAT (Alesis Digital Audio Tape) (1992 – 2003)

ADAT was a digital audio recording format, and was aimed at the professional studio market. It was introduced by Alesis and the first recorders were shipped in 1992.

ADAT could record up to 8 tracks, but multiple machines could be connected and synchronised to create recordings with up to 128 tracks. At the time, the only alternatives were 2 track DAT machines or very expensive digital open reel (DTRS was introduced a year later). ADAT was very sucessful, partly due to its affordability, and over 110,000 ADAT recorders were sold worldwide.

The recorder used S-VHS cassettes as the recording medium. Although intended for analogue video recording, these tapes were ideal for ADAT, with their width allowing for 8 tracks, good quality, and easy availability at the time. Although specially made S-VHS cassettes were available for the ADAT format, any premium-quality S-VHS video cassette could be used, though it was recommended to be no more than 120 minutes long (when used for ADAT, up to 40 minutes per tape was possible).

The first generation of ADAT recorders (also known as ‘Blackface’) recorded at 16 bits per sample (ADAT Type I). Later generations supported 20 bits per sample (ADAT Type II) but were backward compatible with recordings from the first generation.

ADAT was discontinued in 2003, but the name lived on in the ADAT HD24, a hard-drive based recorder.

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