Tagged: 12cm

LightScribe (2004 – 2013)

LightScribe was not a format as such, but a technology introduced by Hewlett-Packard in 2004 that allowed optical drives to laser-etch labels onto compatible media.

As well as a compatible LightScribe enabled drive, LightScribe drivers and suitable disc-burning software that supported LightScribe was required. Finally, a LightScribe compatible disc was needed. After burning data to the disc, the disc is turned over so the label side is face down, and the same laser that burnt data is used to etch the reactive dye coating of the disc.

LightScribe-compatible discs came in the form of CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD+R and DVD+RW. No Blu-ray discs were LightScribe compatible.

The LightScribe technology could only etch in monochrome, and it was possible for the design to fade over time, especially if the disk was exposed to direct sunlight. Etching a disc took a considerable amount of time; up to 30 minutes for a high-contrast image.

As of 2013, the technology was no longer promoted by Hewlett-Packard, but it is possible to obtain the software from elsewhere. Drive manufactures have now ceased making LightScribe enabled optical drives (optical drives in computers are under threat in general).

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Enhanced CD (1994 – )

An enhanced CD (or ECD) is a Compact Disc that contains both audio content playable on a standard CD audio player, and multimedia content playable on a computer CD-ROM.

Introduced in 1994, the idea behind enhanced CDs was to offer the music buyer some extra bonus features using space on the disc that was unfilled by the music. This might take the form of music videos (similar to the earlier idea of CD Video), interviews, wallpapers, pictures, lyrics, or links to an artists website.

Rather confusingly, there were three different ways on combining the different content on the disc. Prior to 1996, enhanced CDs were created in one of two ways. One was to have the multimedia content in the first track, but this meant that track 1 needed to be skipped when played in a standard CD audio player or else the multimedia track could cause an unpleasant noise to be heard. A subsequent solution was to have the multimedia content in the pre-gap before track 1 (rather like the way a CD-i Ready disc worked). Both of these methods were known as ‘mixed-mode’, combining Red Book Digital Audio and Yellow Book CD-ROM information in a single ‘session’ on the same disc.

To get around the problems of mixed-mode discs, Philips and Sony released the Blue Book standards in 1995, and worked with Apple, Microsoft and the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) to develop them. This new standard specified multisession technology that used two sessions on the disc, the first one containing audio tracks, and the second one containing data that is invisible to CD audio players. In 1996, most enhanced CDs used mixed-mode with the multimedia in the pre-gap, but by 1997 most were using Blue Book standards. The only downside to the newer multisession technology was that CD-ROM drives made before 1996 might not recognise them if they were not multisession capable.

Enhanced CDs can usually be recognised the official ‘Enhanced CD’ logo recommended by the RIAA. They may also have the CD EXTRA logo (previously known as CD Plus), which was trademarked by Sony for use on Blue Book discs.

Later technologies like DVD-Audio or DualDisc tried to perform the same function of offering the music album with bonus material such as videos, but later albums often came instead with the videos on a separate DVD-Video.

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DVD-10 / double-sided DVD (1998 – )

DVD-10 discs are double-sided, single-layer DVD-Video discs and are sometimes referred to as ‘flippers’ since they need to be turned over to access the content on the second side. The DVD-10 format is much less common than DVD-9 (single-sided, double-layered discs) but were used more in the early days of DVD-Video, before dual-layer disc production was widely supported. DVD-10 has a storage capacity for video of 9.4 GB (4.7 GB per side). Single-sided, dual-layer discs (DVD-9s) were a feature of the DVD standard from the start, but some early players did have problems with them or needed a firmware upgrade.

DVD-10s don’t feature any artwork on the disc apart from a small area near the spindle hole to indicate which side is which. This is a criticism of the format, along with the difficulty of avoiding finger marks and scratches on the playing surfaces of the disc.

Some DVD-10s contained the movie on one side and bonus material on the other, or a widescreen version on one side and a fullscreen version on the other but some discs did split the film into two parts so the disc needed to be turned during the film, rather like a LaserDisc. Some people reserve the term ‘flipper’ for DVD-10s where the main feature is split over the two sides.

It is possible to find double-sided, dual-layer DVDs (DVD-18s), but these are uncommon, and reportedly more liable to playback problems.

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Nintendo Wii U Optical Disc (2012 -2017)

The Wii U was a video game console introduced by Nintendo in 2012 as the successor to the Nintendo Wii. On release, it was the first eighth-generation video game console, and supported high-definition graphics.  It later competed with other eighth-generation consoles such as the Sony PlayStation 4 and the Microsoft Xbox One.

The controller contained its own screen and could either supplement the main display, or in some games could be used independently of the television.

The Wii U could play discs from the previous Wii system, but no longer supported Nintendo GameCube discs. Games for the Wii U could be downloaded from the Nintendo eShop or bought on the proprietary Wii U Optical Disc. The discs themselves stored up to 25GB (only single-layer discs were used) and were similar to Blu-ray discs having been developed for Nintendo by Panasonic. However, the Wii U could not play Blu-ray discs.

Like the previous Nintendo Wii Optical Disc, the discs for the Wii U have rounded edges both on the outside of the disc and inside the spindle hole.

By the end of 2016, over 13 million Wii U consoles had been sold, but the Wii U was discontinued in January 2017.

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CD-i Ready (1991 – 1998)

CD-i Ready was a hybrid optical disc format, combining audio tracks readable by any Compact Disc audio player, and multimedia or interactive elements readable on a CD-i (Compact Disc Interactive) player. It was introduced by Philips in 1991.

The audio tracks conform to Red Book Compact Disc Digital Audio standards, while the CD-i part conforms to Green Book standards, and could contain interviews, photos, biographies, games and more. The CD-i component is located in the ‘pre-gap’ area before track 1, which is skipped over by Compact Disc audio players.

The idea, like CD-i generally, was not a commercial success, and there appear to be fewer than 20 titles released as CD-i Ready discs.

The ideas behind the hybrid CD-i Ready discs were used in later types of hybrid audio/data discs such as the Enhanced CD that contained content which could be read on a standard computer CD-ROM drive rather than requiring a dedicated CD-i player.

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Superbit (2001 – 2007)

Superbit was a variant on standard DVD-Video introduced in 2001 by the Columbia TriStar Home Entertainment division of Sony.

Superbit DVDs used a higher bit rate transfer process to optimise video quality, and always contained both a 5.1 Dolby Digital and DTS soundtrack. The actual increase in bit rate varied according to the space available on the disc, and the bit rate of the standard DVD version (which itself could vary). They were compatible with standard DVD players and so could carry the DVD logo. Due to the extra space required for video and audio data, bonus material is kept to a minimum or not included at all, though there were a handful of ‘Superbit Deluxe’ releases which carried the bonus material on a second disk. The menus were different to those on the standard DVD release, and were kept simple to save space.

Fewer than 60 titles were released in Superbit format, and Superbit releases typically only sold 2% of the amount of the standard DVD version.

By 2007, Sony was promoting Blu-ray and the Superbit line was dropped.

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Photo CD (1992 – 2004)

Photo CD was an optical disc system based on the Compact Disc that allowed the storage of up to 100 high quality images in a proprietary format. It was introduced by Kodak in 1992, and the format is defined in the Biege Book standard (one of the Rainbow Books covering Compact Disc standards). Kodak’s Photo CD system also included the scanners for photo processing labs that could take scans from film negatives or slides. Photographers could take exposed film to a Photo CD processing lab, where the film would be developed and scanned to a Photo CD, or they could have previously developed film scanned to Photo CD.

Photo CDs were designed to be played on a dedicated standalone Photo CD player connected to a domestic television, but they could also be played in a CD-i player. It was possible to play them on a computer with suitable software, but at the time CD-ROM drives were still uncommon.

The system was not popular with consumers, though it was more accepted by professional photographers.  Although there were around 140 Photo CD processing labs in the US alone by 2000, by this time domestic scanners enabled consumers to scan their own photographs. In 1999, Kodak had also introduced the more affordable Picture CD system, with images in JPEG format burned onto a recordable CD that also held the software required to the view and edit the images on a computer.

Kodak had completely abandoned the Photo CD business by 2004, but never released the image specifications. However, it has been reverse-engineered so it is possible to convert images to other formats.

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XRCD (1995 – )

XRCD (eXtended Resolution Compact Disc) was introduced by JVC in 1995. XRCD discs conform to Red Book standards and will play on any Compact Disc player, but claim to use much higher quality mastering and manufacturing processes to produce a sound as close as possible to the original master tape.

Subsequent versions of XRCD are called XRCD2 and XRCD24.

All versions of XRCD disc are encoded at 16 bits; the 24 in XRCD24 refers to the use of 24 bit encoding when digitising the original analogue source (XRCD and XRCD2 used 20 bit encoding of the original source).

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Video Single Disc (1990 – 1991)

Video Single Disc (VSD) was a short-lived optical disc format for video. It was a variation of the CD-Video format, except the Video Single Disc carried only video and no Compact Disc audio tracks.

Video Single Disc carried analogue video and was compatible with newer LaserDisc players that could handle the smaller (12 cm) discs. It was only popular in some Asian markets and was not marketed elsewhere.

Of the 132 releases listed on the LDDB, most were single music videos, but there were a number of releases of Formula 1 racing-related videos.

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Sony Professional Disc for DATA (2004 – 2007)

Professional Disc for DATA (also known as ProDATA) was an optical disc format introduced in 2004 by Sony. It was intended for creating backups of data, and had a capacity of 23GB per side.

It is virtually identical to (but incompatible with) Professional Disc, used for the XDCAM digital video system. However, both formats used blue lasers, and both discs came in protective caddies.

Both write-once and rewritable versions were available.

In 2006, recordable Blu-ray discs (BD-R and BD-RE) became available, and in 2007, Professional Disc for DATA was declared ‘end of life’ by Sony. Since 2009, Sony has also introduced the ability to store data on Professional Discs for the XDCAM system, in a dedicated ‘User Data’ folder.

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