Film Formats

16mm film (detail)Film formats for still photography and motion picture recording and playback.

Dates are approximate and refer to availability in the UK or Europe where known, otherwise for US or elsewhere.

17th Century

Magic lantern (17th century – 1940s)

1830s

The daguerreotype process, using silver-plated copper sheets treated with iodine, becomes the first publicly available photographic process (1839)

William Henry Fox Talbot introduces the calotype or talbotype photographic process, using paper coated with silver iodine (1841)

1850s

The collodion process is invented, replacing the daguerreotype process by the end of the 1860s (1851)

Ambrotype (early 1850s – 1880s)

Tintype (1850s – 1930s)

Photographic plate (1851 – 1990s)

Carte de visite (1854 – 1900s)

Stereoview (1850s – 1920s)

1860s

Cabinet card (1863 -early 1920s)

1870s

Cigarette card (1875 – early 2000s)

1880s

George Eastman introduces the first transparent plastic roll film, using a nitrocellulose base (1889)

1890s

Microfilm (1890s – )

35mm film (1892 – )

1900s

The first in a long series of inexpensive and simple to operate Brownie cameras is launched by Eastman Kodak, making photography widely accessible (1900)

120 film (1901 – )

Cellulose acetate or ‘safety film’ is introduced by Eastman Kodak, but doesn’t fully replace nitrate film until 1951 (1908)

A standard 35mm film gauge for motion pictures is adopted internationally (1909)

1910s

127 film (1912 – 1970s)

1920s

9.5mm film (1922 – 1960)

16mm film (1923 – )

1930s

135 film (1934 – )

View-Master (1939 – )

1940s

Filmstrip (1940s – 1980s)

The first Polaroid instant film camera, the Model 95, is launched (1948)

1950s

Slide carousel (1950s – 2000s)

Vistascreen (1955 – 1960s)

1960s

Pathescope Ltd. goes into liquidation, ending production of 9.5mm film in England (1960)

Microfiche (1961 – 2000s)

126 film (1963 – 1988)

Show’N Tell (1964 – 1980s)

Americom 8mm Home Movies (1965 – late-1960s)

Single-8 (1965 – 2012)

Super 8 (1965 – )

Technicolor Sound Movie Cartridge (1968 – 1970s)

Tape-slide set (1960s – 1980s)

1970s

Kalavox sound slide (1970s)

Talking View-Master (1970 – 1981)

Movie Viewer (1971 – 1985, 2014 -)

Polaroid SX-70 film (1972 – early 1980s)

110 film (1972 – 1990s)

Polaroid Polavision (1977 – 1979)

1980s

Disc film (1982 – 1988)

Talking View-Master Electronic 3-D Viewer (1984 – late 1980s)

1990s

The JPEG standard for digital images is finalised (1992)

Photo CD (1992 – 2004)

Advanced Photo System (APS) (1996 – 2004)

Fujifilm Instax Mini (1998 – )

Polaroid i-Zone (1999 – 2006)

2000s

Kodak ceases production of cameras using APS (Advanced Photo System) cartridge film (2004)

Kodak makes its last carousel slide projector (2004)

Polaroid stops producing film for its instant cameras (the Dutch company The Impossible Project is subsequently formed to continue manufacture of some instant films) (2008)

2010s

Paramount’s last movie on 35mm film is released (2013)

View-Master Virtual Reality Experience Pack (2015 – )